The Indians of North Florida

Community Timeline


Partial Timeline of North Florida’s Cheraw Indian People


1694-first Oxendine surname identified in historical documentation

1701-Expolorer John Lawson describes Cheraw as “The Esaw Indians, a very large nation containing thousands of people”

1705-The Virginia legislature passed a law that states “The offspring of an Indian and a White is Mulatto”

1710- the great Catawba Chief Nopkehe, also known as King Hagler is born in the Catawba lands near SC

1710-IshamScott (the older) born in Virginia

1719-: The South Carolina Assembly in determining who should be "indian" for tax purposes (Indian slaves were adjudged at a lower tax rate than negro the idea is to get as much tax as possible...remember, censuses were also intended to assess the taxable citizens in any given area, so race was determined by what the census enumerator felt that the person should be taxed as.) passed an act that year stated "And for preventing all doubts and scruples that may arise what ought to be rated on mustees, mulattoes, etc. all such slaves not entirely Indian should be accounted as negro." Inference: persons of Indian blood less than full-blood would be legally documented as "negro".

1724-11,360 acres set aside for the Chowan Indians near Bennett’s Creek

1731-Special meeting of the South Carolina House of Commons after a member had announced that “Free colored men with their white wives have immigrated from Virginia with the intention of settling on the Santee River.”, report of Governor Robert Johnson: “I have had them before me in council and upon examination find that they are not Negroes nor slaves but free people, that the father of them here is named Gideon Gibson and his father was also free…”

1733- Saponi and Cheraw petition Lt. Gov. Gooch for and receive permission to resettle in Virginia after living among the Catawba for several years

1734- Chowan tribe sells last of land

1747-Francis Scott recorded a deed for 200 acres adjoining Burnt Swamp in Halifax District NC

1747-Francis Scott recorded his deed for 200 acres adjoining Burnt Coat Swamp in Halifax District NC.

1750-Halifax NC District militia enlists William Allen, Adam Ivey, Francis Scott, James Evans, Benjamin Chavis, and Abraham Scott

1750-the Halifax District militia enlisted William Allen, Adam Ivey, Francis Scott, James Evans, Ben Chavis, and Abraham Scott

1753-first Oxendine identified living in area that would become Robeson County NC (then Bladen County)

 1753-Will of Alexander Wood, of St. James Goose Creek Parish, Planter, to his half-breed Indian Slaves named Dukey Cox and George Cox, born of his Indian slave named Jenny, and Minerva Watkins, born of his Indian Slave named Moll, manumission upon his death

1755-general Jacob Scott born in SC

1756-Francis Scott charged in Edgecombe Court with concealing tithables

1760-Billie Scott and John Scott born  in Catawba Nation lands in SC, John Scott would die and be buried in Robeson County NC

1761- a report counts  20 Saponi warriors in the area of Granville, NC, corresponding to the “Mulatto, Mustee, or Indian” taxation on Granville of the Anderson, Jeffries, Davis, Chavis, Going, Bass, Harris, Brewer, Bunch, Griffin, Pettiford, Evans

1761-The Rev. Alex Stewart baptized 7 Indians and mixed-blood children of the Attamusket, Hatteras, and Roanoke tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21 more.” In Virginia– Swanton

1763- Catawba Chief King Hagler dies

1764-“General Ayers” becomes Catawba Nations principal Chief and negotiates a treaty for that allotted the Catawba a 144,000 acre reservation in present-day Lancaster, York, and Chester counties

1770-David Scott born in Catawba lands near SC, would die in Sumter County SC

1775-exum Scott willed lands of Francis Scott on both sides of Burnt Coat Swamp as “joining  Scott’s Mill Place

1778- NC General Assembly states “be it enacted that William Williams, Thomas Pugh, Willie Jones, Simon Turner, and Zedekiah Stone be, and they are hereby appointed commissioners for said Indians”

1786- William Scott taxed as “Indian” in Henrico Co VA

1790-Absalom Scott and Jacob Scott (who married Betsy Ayers the daughter of General Jacob Scott) are born in SC

1790-Isham Scott (the younger) born in North Carolina

1790-Sarah “Sally” Mursh Brown, a Pamunkey and eventually the wife of Catawba Jaime Brown, was born in Virginia.

1791-Isham Scott born in SC

1791-William Ayers born in SC

1792- The Virginia General Assembly ordered that the Gingaskin tribal lands be divided up.

1792-Alfred Mayo born in SC.

1794- The South Carolina Legislature received a petition from Isaac Linegear, Isaac Mitchell, Jonathon Price, Spencer Bolton, William Sweat, and 29 other “free peoples of color” seeking to repeal “the act imposing a poll tax on “all free Mulattos, Mustees, and Negroes” They wish to support the government, but the poll tax caused great hardship among free women of color, especially widows with large families. Tax collectors hunted them down and extorted payments.”

1795-Stephen Turner born in SC.

1797-Tempy Scott marries John Jones; Jacob Scott born in SC

1799-Sam Scott born on Catawba reservation in SC

1801-General Jacob Scott becomes Chief of the Catawba after the death of General New River1815-Asa Emanuel born in Georgia

1810-William Bryant born in NC

1815-Asa Emanuel born in Georgia

1816-Professor Blackburn describes sally New River as an “Old woman’ in this year

1817-Dempsey Fennell born in GA

1818 Exum Scott and Francis Jones testify in Wake Co NC on behalf of Allen Sweats petition for a pension for his Revolutionary War service

1820-Benjamin Hagan born in GA. Martin Mayo born in FL. Martin Mayo born in FL.

1821-General Jacob Scott, Chief of the Catawba until his death, passes away, to be replaced by General Jacob Ayers who would be chief until his death in 1837

1822-Betsy Perkins was born in NC, the mother of Mary Attaway. Bartram Butcher born in NC

1822-Sarah “Sally” Mursh Brown took rents for Jaime Brown’s Catawba reservation leases

1823-Treaty of Moultrie Creek signed with Seminole of Florida, including a special provision which read “one square mile at Ocheesee Bluffs embracing Stephen Richards fields of said Bluffs, be conveyed in simple to said Stephen Richards”, a friendly Indian and scout against the Seminole and an interpreter to US Indian agent Gad Humphreys

1824-Jane Bartlett born in GA.

1825-Stephen Hagan born in GA. Major h Stanley born in NC.

1826-Catawba Chief General Jacob Ayers signed a lease for 208 acres

1826-catawba population had dwindled to only 2 villages, New Town and Turkey head

1826-John Scott born on Catawba reservation in SC

1827-Anthony Burns born in FL.

1828- Betty hunter, Isaac Going and Rebecca Going submitted a petition attested to their Indian ancestry and requesting a refund of the free Negro poll tax.

1828- Betty hunter, Isaac Going and Rebecca Going submitted a petition attested to their Indian ancestry and requesting a refund of the free Negro poll tax.

1828-Several families of Catawba migrate to Florida from SC, including the surnames of Ayers, Brown, Bunch, Harmon, Jeffries, Jones, Scott, Stephens, and Williams, 7 of which are identifiable as Catawba.

1828-Several families of Catawba migrated to Florida from SC, including the surnames of Ayers, Brown, Bunch, Harmon, Jeffries, Jones, Scott, Stephens, and Williams, 7 of which are identifiable as Catawba. These several Indian families came down from SC and settled in along the Choctawhatchee River area in northern Florida’s panhandle. These Carolina Indian families included Alfred Mayo (his white wife Catherine Youngblood), William Bryant, Bartram Butcher, Stephen Hagan, Rinchen Ammons, Dempsey Fennell, Major Stanley (his wife Elizabeth Perkins), William Chavis, Robert Knight, Robert Bartlett, Stephen Turner, Allen Gibson, Samuel Perkins, Anthony Burns, William Smith, and Roderick Chavis, as well.( from the 1850 census of Holmes and  Washington Co. FL) Eventually leading to the Scott’s Ferry and Scott Town settlements, several other families part of the movement to Florida settled on the Chipola and later Apalachicola Rivers. These were Jacob Scott (his wife Polly Harmon), Isham Scott, Joseph Scott,, Elizabeth "Betty" Perkins, Rebecca Goins, Absalom Scott (his wife Rose Bell), Richard Jeffries, John "Jack" Jones, Samuel Smith, Martin Brooks, and John Bunch.(1850 census Jackson & Calhoun Co. FL)

1829-Alexander H. Stephens was born in Jackson County, Florida. He died of disease during the Civil War

1829-South Carolina marriage Index books record the marriages of James, Alexander and George Hill, to Amanda, Sarah, and Nancy Doyle, “Belles of the Creek Nation”, carried in the Cherokee Phoenix in an article dated 1829 and occurring at Fort Mitchell, Creek Nation. “Married on the 3rd of March, at the Asbury Missionary Institute, near Fort Mitchell Creek Nation, by the reverend Mr. Hill, the Mr. James Hill of the US Army, to Miss Amanda Doyle, a Creek Pupil of the Institution. This establishment is under the charge of Mr. and Mrs. Hill, who were desirous of showing the natives how this ceremony is performed in a refined state of society, and the highest encomiums are due them for their entire success. Great exertion and ingenuity were necessary to accomplish it. The company consisted of about twenty white persons and one hundred and fifty natives. The bride and her two maids were dressed with great taste and propriety, according to the fashion of the age. The groom and his two associated were in full military costume; and those persons present accustomed to wedding scenes, pronounced this bridal party one of the handsomest they had ever witnessed. After the marriage ceremony, the happy pair were congratulated with all good wishes; cake and wine were passed around, and in due time a bountiful supper was partaken of by the whole company , and the evening passed on in the most agreeable manner possible. All parties seemed delighted with the occasion. A number of strangers present will never forget the kind and hospitable reception given them by Mr. and Mrs. Hill.-Georgia Courier”-transcribed from the Cherokee Phoenix 1929. These indexed reference in the Millidgeville, Georgia Newspaper Clippings (Southern Recorder), Volume II 1828-1832” states:“HILL, Mr. James of the US Army m. DOYLE, Miss Amanda, a Creek pupil of the Asbury Missionary Institution near Fort Mitchell Creek Nation, m. there 3-3-1829 by Rev. Mr. Hill. AC 3-18-1829; CP 4-29-1829; A th 4-7-1929; SP 3-21-1829; SR 4-21-1829. DG 4-19-1829 gives wedding date as 4-3-1829”, “HILL, Alexander of the US Army m. DOYLE, Miss Sarah, a belle of the Creek Nation, m. there 3-3-1829 State of Georgia CP 4-29-1829”, “HILL, George W. of the US Army m. DOYLE, Miss Nancy, a belle of the Creek Nation, m. there 3-3-1829 State of Georgia CP 4-29-1829”

1830-Samuel Mayo born in FL.

1833-Daniel Bunch born

1833-Robert Knight was born in GA.

1833-taxed as “Free People of color” by Jackson County: Beady, Betsy, Sam Ireland, John Jones, Jacob Scott, Absalom Scott, Olive Scott, Penny Scott, Luranny Scott, and Teresa Ward

1834-John W. Hill was born in Robeson County NC.

1834-taxed as “Free Persons of Color” by Jackson County: Martin Brooks, Richard Jeffers, John Jones, Joe Masaleno, Jacob Scott, Absalom Scott, and Joseph Scott.

1836-Simeon Martin born in Alabama

1837-“Captain” Steven Richards  empowered by the west Florida Milita to form and outfit a mounted company of Indians for service against hostile creeks, many of the men in his company had caroline Cheraw surnames

1837-Betsy and Sally Ayers held as hostile Indians at Dog Island Florida by Lt. Barrian, they were eventually adopted into the Choctaw Nation I.T. along with several other Catawba families.

1837-Catawba Chief General Jacob Ayers dies, documented by Catawba Nation researcher Ian Watson as “the end of a conservative era of Catawba Tribal Government”. Catawba Chief General William Harris signed a lease for some of the last remaining Catawba reservation lands over to a White settler

1837-John W Ayers Jr. born in Florida

1838-Betsy Perkins listed on local Jackson co. record as a head of household of 4 free people of color

1839-John Ayers born in Florida

1840-A Jackson County perspective jurors list included Robert and Joseph Blanchard (from Gates County NC), Joseph Montford, Jonathon Jones, and Robert Scott

1840-David Ayers, Solomon Ayers, James G. Stephens born in Florida

1840-from an appeal by 36 white residents of Robeson County to the legislative assembly concerning the sale of spirits to the mixed-race people of the county, “The County of Robeson is cursed with a free-coloured population that migrated originally from around the Roanoke and Neuse rivers. They are generally indolent, roguish, improvident, and dissipated, Having no regard for character, they are under no restraint but what the law imposes”

 1840-taxation census of Walton County, West Florida (later split to form Holmes) Page 2: Betsy Allen…..2male FPOC, 4 female FPOC (Page 7):Henry Stephens, 1white female, 16 male FPOC, Alfred Mayo….8male FPOC, 4female FPOC

1840-The Catawba leaders signed a treaty (Nations Ford)  ceding all Catawba lands remaining over to south Carolina in exchange for money to buy  lands in North Carolina  which they were later refused by NC

1840-Tthe Calhoun County federal census records Joe Scott and a family of 17 free people of color living next to John Chason and Henry d. Stone

1840-Tthe Calhoun County federal census records Joe Scott in Iola (present day Scotts Ferry) and a family of 17 free people of color living next to John Chason and Henry d. Stone, a few households down were Jackson Wood and Moses Manning, who appear on Richards Company of Friendly Indians roster.

1842-Francis M. Williams born in Calhoun County Florida (served with the 2nd Florida cavalry)

1843-John Levy Emanuel was born. John T. Scott was born in Early County, Georgia. Elias Oxendine born in NC.

1845- John Williams born

1845-William Perkins was born in Bibb County Georgia. William Bunch was born in Henry County Alabama (and later served with the 2nd Florida Cavalry co.). John Williams born in Calhoun County Florida ( he later served with the 2nd Florida cavalry)

1846-Asa Ayers born in Florida

1847-30 Catawba sent a petition to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs asking to be removed to the Chickasaw Nation in Indian Territory

1847-local newspaper account documents stabbing death of “Old Chief Joe, a well-known Indian Chief”

1848-a French artist visiting the Gregory house sketched and painted a group of Indians and their cabins he entitled “Indian village on the Apalachicola”. This was 9 years after the creek removal.

1848-The Florida Legislature required free Negroes and mulattoes to have a White guardian appointed by the local magistrate and were restricted from owning property.

1849-only 2 individuals with the surname Scott remain among the Catawba in SC (John Scott born in 1826 and Sam Scott born in 1799)

1850- Calhoun County Florida census shows John Ayers, Arilla Ayers, Billy Williams, Ishmael Ayers, Joseph Scott, Mary Scott, Jacob Scott, Absalom Scott, Alexander and Mary Ann Scott Stephens, Frank and Elizabeth Scott Hill.

1850- Federal census of Walton County census takers contracted to perform the census encouraged to inquire into a person’s self-identification due to “Light skinned Negroes trying to pass themselves off as Whites or Indians”

1850- the 1850 Census of Calhoun County... the name John Williams (this should be household #52) (note: John Williams was born 1790 in Mecklenburg NC where he appears in 1820 and 1830 then moved to Robeson Co. where he appears in 1840, then on to Florida by 1850) it begins a three page section which was the core of the Cheraw Indian community living on the plantation of Capt. Stephen Richards (these include Ishmael Ayers, Jacob Scott (his wife Appa "Polly" Harmon), Isham Scott, Olive Jones, Absalom Scott, Alexander Stephens, Elizabeth Perkins Hill, and Sarah Brown Castleberry...(also James Butts who was brought up to court in Jackson County for "Adultery & fornication with free Mulattoe" in 1857 but case was dropped by the state after hearing testimony from John Chason) this county also see household #50 John Williams the last household of interest is #88 headed by Abigail Brickhouse..her daughter Elizabeth Brickhouse married Ellis F. Davis (of Scott Church)..also in this household is Sarah "Sabrey" J. Register who married John M. Scott...just across the river in Liberty County observe household #618 William Stafford, #619 Henry Maner (sic Mainer ..note that his son was born 1847 in Texas) #620 Thomas Scott (and wife Sarah Larkins) #621 Frances Larkins and #622 William Scott. (note: the names of Jacob Scott, Joseph Scott, and William Scott all appear on 1825 petition of Catawba Indians regarding leases of Catawba Reservation land in my possession)

1850-Francis Hill and his wife Elizabeth Scott recorded on census as “White” on the 1850 census then as “Mulatto” on the 1860 federal census

1850-Jacob Scott and his wife Polly Harmon recorded as “White” on the 1850 census but as “Mulatto” on the 1860 federal census

1850-the 1850 Census of Jackson County  household #522 Samuel H. Ireland (married Elizabeth Perkins,  first cousin of Betty Perkins - in Gates Co. NC) next is #523 Betsy Hills (this is a repeat of Calhoun household #68) and #524 Polly Bedie

1853-A band of 18 Catawba were reported by Brigadier General G. B. Hall wandering near Stockton Alabama having traveled there from North Florida, declaring they were traveling to Indian Territory.

1853-John Scott is only individual with Scott surname still resident among SC Catawba

1855-Henry Oxendine of Woods settlement born in Robeson County NC

1855-Walton County tax list identifies: Daniel Gunn.$ man of color; Jonathan Manor (sic Mainer) man of color; Benj. Thomas…$ man of color

1856-Florida tax books changed their format from a “free person of color” bracket to a “free negroes & Mulatto’s” bracket

1857-James Butts (head of household number 67 on 1850 Calhoun County federal  census)was called before a Jackson County court to answer to charges of “Fornication with a Mulatto”( he had lived with Mary Ann Jones since at least 1850 when he was enumerated with her on census).  Butts challenged the courts identification of the woman whom he cohabitated with as Mulatto, as she did not fit the legal definition of Mulatto, her being an Indian. Several community members were called forth as witnesses including Captain Richards and John Chason, and the charges were dismissed. A very similar case would be won five years later on the same grounds by Frank Hill and Elizabeth Scott.

1857-William Chavers (Chavis) was arrested and charged as a “free person of color” with carrying a shotgun, a violation on NC state law. He was convicted, but promptly appealed, claiming that the law restricted free Negroes not persons of color. The appeals court reversed the lower Court finding that, “Free persons of color may be, then, for all we can see, persons colored by Indian blood, or persons descended from Negro ancestors beyond the fourth degree.”

1858-‘Indian’ Tish Brown was born in GA.

1858-Dozens of Cheraw families leave north Florida and migrate to Rapides Parish Louisiana and found the Louisiana “Redbone” communities there.

1859- a petition submitted to the South Carolina legislature inquiring if “persons of Indian descent  are considered to be free persons of color  and liable for a poll tax.”

1860- On 1860 Calhoun County; special census page beginning with household #165 Joe Scott (his wife Sarah Beasley-a descendant of the Chowan Beasley family from Gates County NC) this was the beginning of the Scott's Ferry settlement including Jacob Scott, Frank Hill (his wife Elizabeth Perkins), William Stafford, Jack Howard (his wife Lofty Bunch), Paschal Loftis (his wife Olive Jones - living with them was Olive's grand daughter, Jane Scott, who married Rueben Blanchard) Isham Scott (his wife Jane Emanuel) and Edmund Manuel (note: Edmund Emanuel was from Sampson Co. NC and had enlisted there in war of 1812), also 1860-Scotts Ferry settlement recorded on census as including Jacob Scott, his nephew Joe along with Joe’s wife Sarah Brown Castleberry, and Sarah’s daughter Emily Brown. Also on census was Francis “Frank” Hill and his common-law wife at the time Elizabeth Perkins Attaway, also William Stafford and his wife Polly Harmon Scott (formerly the wife of Jacob Scott). Also Jack Howard and his wife Lofty Bunch, and 2 sisters in law Betty Bunch and Molly Thompson (who later married Shurard Scott). Also on this census were Paschal Loftis and Olive Jones, along with her granddaughter Jane Scott. Also Isham Scott and his wife Jane Manuel, and her father Edmund Manuel (originally from Sampson County NC) also recorded on this census was the observations of census taker John G. Smith written as follows “ The free negroes of this county are mixed-blood, almost white and are intermarried with a low class of whites-have no trade, occupation, or profession, they live in a settlement or town of their own, their personal property consists of hogs and cattle they make no produce except corn and peas and very little of that. They are a lazy, indolent, and worthless race.” This racist observation being stated despite the communities tangible goods worth being in sum of over 4000 dollars according to the same census, more than many settlements in the county at the time.

1860- The 1860 federal census of Jackson County Florida shows the Scott Town settlement as being Ellis  and Elizabeth (Brickhouse) Davis; Abb and Gilly Stephens Scott with their children John, Samuel, and Henry; John, Vina, Simmons, Daniel, John, Benjamin, and Henry Williams; Daniel, Elizabeth, and Mary Bunch; Emaline Davis; Henry S, Mary, Emily, and Georgia Stone; Joseph and Susan (Emanuel) Davis with Frances and John their children, including Robert Vaughn and William Allison; Joseph W. and Elmyra Smith with Green Peacock; Samuel, Eliza, Harriet, Susan, and Catherine Ireland; Alexander and Matilda (Scott) Stephens with son Edward; William J. Atkinson; John P Mayo, with Nancy, James, John, Martha, Nancy, Elijah, and Ann; and Milly Mainer. In 1860 Jackson County.... two pages beginning with household #106 Ellis Davis (his wife Elizabeth Brickhouse) #107 Absalom Scott #108 John Williams #109 Daniel Bunch #139 Emiline Davis #140 Joseph Davis (his wife Susan Emanuel) #141 Joseph D. Smith #142 Samuel Ireland (his wife Elila Perkins) #143 Alexander Stephens (his wife Mary Matilda Scott...Alexander died of disease during the Civil War and Mary Matilda remarried to James William Perkins the son of Elizabeth Perkins Attaway) ...this was the beginning of the Scott Church settlement.

1860-Jacob Scott’s 160 acres, mill, and Ferry in Calhoun County valued at $2,000

1861-Francis Hill charged along with his common-law wife Elizabeth Scott, with “Fornication with a Mulatto” in Calhoun County court. Charges found to be unfounded due to “Eliza Scott is not a Mulatto as named in the indictment but is an Indian of the Catawba tribe, her grandfather Jacob Scott being a headman of that tribe” (from 10 July 1861, state of Florida vs. Francis Hill, 1860-1865 Calhoun Judicial Cases, Calhoun County Courthouse Archives Room, 3rd Floor Blountstown Florida)

1861-Francis Hill, Isham Scott, and John “Captain Jack” Ayers enlist for service in the Confederate forces in McCallister’s Calhoun Rangers, a home guard company

1861-legislation passed in Florida requiring Free Negroes to register with a probate judge or be classified as a slave and claimable by White persons

1861-The Annual Report of Catawba Agent J.R. Patton stated “Eliza Scott” was paid 20 for “teaching”

1862-Jacob Scott, an original Carolina migrant and the founder of Scott’s Ferry passes away

1862-Ruben G. Blanchard enlisted with the Confederate Army, Co. E, 10th Florida Infantry. Private John W. Hill dies of pneumonia at Camp Winder Hospital in Richmond Va.

1862-Solomon Ayers, John W Ayers Jr., David Ayers, and Thomas Ayers enlists in Florida Infantry at Rico’s Bluff

1863-David S Ayers was mortally wounded in combat at Gettysburg. Solomon Ayers dies of Typhoid at Florida State Hospital. Private William Perkins discharged from Confederate army in Mossy Creek TN

1863-Martha Hill Minton was reimbursed for traveling 24 miles to testify on behalf of Sherrod Scott

1864, Dec 19-Joh Chason dies of Dysentery at Ship Island Prison as a Union POW

1864, Sep 27-Battle between Confederate and Union forces at Marianna Florida

1864, Sep 27-John Chason wounded and  captured in battle by Union forces, James G. Stephens captured in battle near Petersburg

1864-John W Ayers Jr. wounded in the foot in combat

1864-Private John Levy Emanuel captured in battle near Nashville, and sent to Camp Douglas Prison. Private Asa Emanuel captured by Union forces near Volusia Florida, held POW at Hilton Head prison

1864-Ruben G. Blanchard reassigned to the Confederate Navy, serving on the gunboat Ironclad “Palmetto State”

1865-Ruben G. Blanchard captured by Union forces on April 6 during Lee’s retreat from Richmond, and was held POW at Point lookout prison in Maryland for 2 months. Private John Levy Emanuel mustered into 5th US Volunteer Infantry after being released from Elmira POW Camp

1865-Thomas Ayers captured by Union forces, James G. Stephens released from Elmira POW Camp

1866-Sabra J. Register charged with “attempting to marry a Mulatto”, and her common-law husband, Gilberry Scott with “open state of fornication”. All charges were dismissed with not guilty verdicts.

1870- Jackson County. Scott Town, as it appears on the 1870 census, is composed of 7 households all employed in farming. The first appearing is the home of James William Perkins and his wife Mary Matilda Scott (the widow of Alexander H. Stephens). Living in the Perkins home was Mary’s four children by Alexander and her two sons by William. Next was the home of Confederate and Union veteran Samuel Scott along with his wife Jane Ayers. Living next door was Lewis Scott and his wife Elizabeth Isabella Davis, as well as Henry Scott and his wife Sarah Ayers. Still maintaining a household was Absalom Scott along with his new wife Julie A. Bell. The next home was that of Mary L. Chason, orphaned daughter of John Chason. The final household was that of Mary Attaway Scott, the widow of John T. Scott, who shared her home with her mother Betsy Perkins. (In 1870 Jackson County...please observe a closely grouped settlement beginning with household #37 William Perkins (James William with Mary Matilda Scott widow of Alexander Stephens...William was charged with "Lewd & Lascivious Cohabitation" in Jackson Court in 1872 and thereafter moved down to Scott's Ferry) #40 Samuel Scott ( Samuel was charged with "Adultery" in Jackson Co. Court in 1868 and his 1st wife, Susan Ireland, filed for divorce that same year...he remarried to Jane Ayers) #Louis Scott (Lewis Scott and wife Isabella Davis) #42 Henry Scott (his wife Sarah Ayers) #43 Absalom Scott (his second wife Julia A. Bell) #45 Mary L. Chason (daughter of John Chason who had been killed in the War) #46 Abraham Colwell (taxed as a "free person of color" in Jackson Co. in 1845, 1846, and again as a "free person of color" in Calhoun Co. in 1852.) #47 Wright Colwell (son of Abraham...Wright's wife Margaret Miller) #48 Pollie Whitehead #49 Laboring Goodson (his wife Nancy Calwell, daughter of Abraham) Rebecca Duffin (this is Rebecca Goins, she had two daughters by a white man named 'Duffin') #51 Nancy A. Maddox

1870- Scott’s ferry settlement appears on the federal census containing ‘Ruben and wife Eliza Blanchard and their son John, Olive and Martha Jones, Edmond Emanuel, Thomas Williams and his wife Susan Stephens, Isham and his wife Jane Scott, Polly Scott with daughter Nancy Mumford, John Jones with daughter Beady and her children William, jack, Emily, and Martha Jones, and finally Jane Williams and children Delia and William Williams. 1870-1870 Calhoun County,  observe a closely grouped settlement beginning with household #256 Ruben Blanchard (his wife Jane Scott Stone the granddaughter of Olive Jones) and ending 8 households later with #265 Jane Williams....this was the core of the Scott's Ferry settlement. The Florida Cheraw Indian Research Project was forwarded a very useful document, a report by Melinda Maynor on a community of Lumbees who settled in southeast Georgia (Bulloch County) to work in the timber industry (Maynor, Melinda M. “People and Place: Croatan Indians in Jim Crow Georgia 1890-1920” Thesis, U of NC @ Chapel Hill, 2002 43 pgs.)..she details the types of work, the economic impact, etc. she also mentions the time period that the industry moved from Georgia to Florida...the most exciting detail is when she notes the Lumbees living here she mentions Beasley Bullard, a Lumbee born in Robeson who subsequently lived at Scott Church in 1920 (where he is censused as "Mulatto")..he married Loula Scott then moved back to Robeson by 1930 (where he is censused as "Indian") apparently Beasley was living in the Lumbee community in Bulloch Co. Ga. in 1910, but had followed the timber industry down to Scott Church and Scott's Ferry by 1920

1870-1870 Franklin County...please observe household #21 John Bunch (John Bunch was taxed as a "free person of color" in Calhoun Co. in 1852) and #22 John Scott (this is John M. Scott who married Sabra J. Register...they continued to live in Frankiln County after she was charged with "Attempting to Marry a Mulattoe" in Calhoun Co...most likely due to John's service for the Union in the War...investigation was held and charges dropped, but they did not live in Calhoun after that)

1871-In a letter to Draper, Thomas D. Spratt states that sally New River and Jenny Scott are half-sisters and that general Jacob Scott and Billy Scott were grandsons of King Hagler

1871-The North Carolina Joint Senate and House Committee interviewed Robeson County Judge Giles Leitch about the “free persons of color” residing within his county

1872- A Georgia congressman petitioned the Indian Office for assistance in removing 84 Catawba living in Granville County, Georgia.

1872-Lawrence Oxendine born in NC

1880-   In 1880 the Scott Town settlement had continued to decrease, now containing only six homes. Appearing on the census was the household of Lewis Scott and his wife Isabella Davis, while next door was the home of Matilda Davis (sister of Isabella) which she shared with her niece and nephew, Viney Robinson and Washington Boggs. Living alone was John Miller who reported that his father was born in Sweden. Ezekiel Goodson maintained a home which he shared with his Indian wife Rebecca Goins. Living next door was James William Perkins and his wife Matilda Scott Stephens. Henry A. Scott, the son of Henry Scott and Sarah Ayers, had been living with them in 1870, but was now living in the household of his uncle, James Perkins. Still unmarried, Mary Attaway Scott was still keeping her own household along with her daughters William Ann and Rosabella, except that now she also had a son, Mathias, whom had been fathered by a local man of the Porter family.

1880-the Scotts ferry settlement is enumerated on the federal census containing “henry Johnson with W.D. Williams, Penny and William Scott, Nancy Montford, Enoch Wells, Benjamin Beauchamp and his wife Ellen Scott, with boarding children Sally Washington and Rich Nixon. Also included on this census were Elizabeth Scott Hill her stepdaughter Nancy Quinn with husband Joseph Quinn and frank Hill, John Jones with wife Beady Mainer, next to Mary Scott and daughter in law Julian Scott with her grandson William Scott. As well Sam Washington, olive Scott Jones, Martha Jones, and Mary Linton, also enumerated were T.C. Shelby and Hestor Brouchard. Also enumerated were Ruben Blanchard his wife Jane Stone and David martin (originally from Persons County NC) with his wife Amanda Scott

1881-Hugh Oxendine born in Woods settlement, Liberty County Florida

1883-John Kever, Martha Oxendine Peacock (mother of Hugh Oxendine) born in Liberty County Florida

1884-Dovey Potter is born in Washington County Florida

1884-Henry Oxendine, the father of Hugh and Tom Oxendine of Woods settlement in Liberty County, falls from his horse and dies.

1886-Elias Oxendine settles in Jackson County Florida

1886-Sarah Francis Richards was born in Florida.

1887- a school was founded in Robeson County NC, in 1887 initially known as the Croatan Normal School and in the nineteen teens was changed to the Cherokee Indian Normal School.

1889-Thomas Ayers marries Emily Marshall

1890-John Howard appointed guardian of Margaret Bunch, with John Williams appointed as surety (SF)

1893-Thomas M. Scott was left parentless, and George Green was appointed guardian of the 15 year old boy with Frances M. Williams and Joseph Quinn as surety

1894-Beady Mainer Jones approached the court to administer the estate of her deceased husband, Jack Jones. William Quinn was listed as her surety while J.W. Blanchard was appointed by the court to appraise Jack Jones personal property

1900-Jackson County, The 1900 census reflects four homes present at the heart of the settlement. Mary Attaway Scott, now the eldest of the community and a strong family leader, shared her house with eldest daughter William Ann (who never married but had a house full of children). Next door was Mary’s younger daughter, Bell Scott, who also never married but shared her home with a boarder, Ed Stephens, the son of Alexander H. Stephens and Matilda Scott. Maude E. Perkins was also maintaining a household as well as Mathias Scott Porter and his wife Louella Goodson (daughter of Rebecca Goins).

1900-William Ernest Habbard, (grandson of ‘Indian’ Tish of Defuniak Springs) was born in Freeport, Walton County FL.

1904-Louvimia Martin Brown charged with “Assault with Intent to Murder” and “Carrying a Winchester Rifle without a Permit”, defense witnesses called was Thomas Ash, Dave Martin, and Linnie Davis (SF)

1906-Asa Ayers died

1907-Henry Atkins charged with “Murder”, witnesses were Wesley Williams, M. Mainer, Tom Scott, and Jeff Scott

1908-Ruben G. Blanchard first denied his confederate pension, due to accusations of being a “mulatto” and “mixed blooded” by County Pension Commission Chairman George L Hansford, despite honorable service in Confederate Army and Navy and being held as a POW. Hansford stated in one of many letters, “Negroes were not enlisted and are not entitled to pensions”, through the advocacy of his lawyers from the Jackson County law firm of Calhoun and Campbell, Blanchard eventually did receive his small confederate veteran’s pension

1910-’Indian’ Tish Brown and all her grandchildren were censused as “Mulatto” on Walton County’s Federal Census. Tish’s grandson Walker Habbard married Cora Stephens.

1910-Individuals from Calhoun County make claims for pensions based on their confederate service, including Reuben G. Blanchard with the support of W.M. Ayers; Elizabeth McDaniel Jones with the help of Lawrence and Sarah Williams; Charles E. Scott received help from Nathaniel Scott, J.M. Atkins, and Cornelius Stephens (SF).

1917-WWI Civilian Draft Registrations show several individuals identified racially as White and (Citizen)-Indian on the forms. These include members of the Whitfield family (descendants of George Whitfield and his wife, a Scott), Herbert Boone (Son of Henry Boone and Anna Scott), and Lemuel and John Moses. Willie Porter, the son of Mathias Porter was listed as “Indian Creole” (SF) In Scott Town, five men were listed as being of Caucasian and Indian race, which were Samuel ‘Sandy’ Scott, Thomas F. Scott, Jesse Scott, Jimmie Scott, and George Scott. George was actually inducted into service as a private in the Army and in the race section the inductor crossed through the ‘White’ and ‘Colored’ and wrote in the word ‘Indian.’ Also inducted into the Army was Sanders S. Scott (sic Samuel) who was listed as “white.”

1918-The Kentucky case of McGoodwin vs. Shelby calls into question the racial background of Shelby’s family originally from Scotts Ferry

1920- The 1920 federal census showed nine homes at Scott Town, and all apparently on land owned by Mary Attaway Scott. The first of these homes was that of widower Mathias Scott Porter. Living next door was Mathias’ son Willie Porter (who had been listed as “Indian Creole” on WWI civil enlistment for Scott’s Ferry). The next household was that of Cromes Rainey, a Negro employee of Mary Scott. William Ann Scott was now head of her own household which she shared with her children, three grandchildren (Jonas Thomas, Paul Porter & Loula Bell Porter – Paul and Loula attended school at Scott’s Ferry) and a lodging individual, Ed Quinn, formerly of Scott’s Ferry. Samuel ‘Sandy’ Scott had the next house, and next door was Kate Scott. William ‘Bill’ Scott (son of Joe Scott of Scott’s Ferry), who had been working at Scott’s Ferry since at least 1885, was now back living at Scott Town and sharing a home with the elderly Mary Attaway Scott. The next home was kept by Beasley Bullard, a Lumbee Indian from Robeson County, North Carolina, who along with his wife Loula Scott, shared their home with Earl Batson, a hired hand (Earl Batson would later marry Mary Dasher of Woods). The last household is that of Thomas F. Scott and his wife Daisy Porter. Beasley Bullard was born in Robeson County in 1878, the son of Birdie Bullard and H.C. (?)....

1920-Samuel F. Scott and Elizabeth Scott were both recorded as “C.I.” in the race category in the Shiloh District voter’s registry book in Calhoun County

1922-Dec 15 Elman Scott was born in Scott Town, Jackson County, Florida.

1929-Samuel F. Scott was appointed as executor of the estate of his cousin, John Williams, in Calhoun County

1930-There are 2 anonymous articles written about the “Dominicker” communities of Cheraw people in Holmes and Walton Counties by visiting writers as part of the WPA effort.

1938-david Martin, trustee for Marysville School had a letter written to Calhoun County Clerk J.A. Peacock which stated, “There are men who would knife us out of having our own school saying that we are Negroe. You know our character that we are of White and Indian blood…”

1938-Mary Francis Porter was born the daughter of Bessie Porter Copeland in the Scott Town settlement. Bessie was the daughter of Mathias Porter and Louella Goodson (the daughter of Ezekiel Goodson and Rebecca Goins). According to her mother, Mary Francis was the illegitimate child of Whit Wells, a white man. Mary Francis was apparently not satisfied with ending her education at the last grade offered at the little one room Scott School, and she left Florida to receive higher training at the Cherokee Indian Normal School at Pembroke, North Carolina. This school was founded in 1887 as the Croatan Normal School, and in the nineteen teens was changed to the Cherokee Indian Normal School. It was funded by the state of North Carolina for the education of Indian students of the area. Perhaps inspired by Beasley Bullard and his wife Loula Scott moving to Robeson in the late 1920’s, several other Porter family members were also living in Robeson in 1930 (Dock Porter and his wife Pearly Blanchard; and Coy Porter and his wife Daisy Blanchard, all recorded as “Indian” on the Robeson County census). Apparently not having any knowledge of Indians from Northwest Florida, the school officials requested additional information from the Jackson County School Superintendent, and thus began a series of letters which gives a wealth of information as to the genealogy of the Scott Town mixed-bloods, their racial self-identification, and also the attitude of local whites towards them. On October 13, 1938, J.R. Lowry, a Lumbee Indian and Dean of the Cherokee Indian Normal School, inquired of the Jackson County post master, “Is there a school in your town or county by the name of ‘Scott’s School’? If you do, please send me the name of the principal or head of the School. For what race is it maintained? (White or Colored).” The postmaster forwarded the request to C.P. Finlayson, Superintendent of Public Instruction for Jackson County. Finlayson responded to Lowry, In the community of the school there are several families of Scotts who from appearance can very easily be considered as belonging to the white race. However, it is generally believed in this county that they have some negro blood in them and for that reason they attend a negro school. It is of course possible that they might have a large percentage of Indian blood but I have no information or knowledge as to their ancestry.” The information regarding negro ancestry inspired Mary’s teacher, Mrs. G. Revels, to write a personal letter to Finlayson where she states, write back immediately and answer the questions which I have asked you. It’s a shame for Mary to have to miss school when I am certain that she has not a bit of colored blood. She is one of the best students in her class…Please let me hear from you at once regarding this matter.” Indeed, even Mary Francis herself felt it was necessary to write Finlayson to receive fair treatment, “If you will go out among my people you will find that none of them has had ambition to get out to school for an education and for that simple cause I would like to bring a light to them in that instance…I cannot help the situation among my people and yet I know that a drop of negro blood is not within me.”  Finlayson, obviously moved by Mary’s letter, started an investigation into the issue. On February 28, 1939, he returned a letter to Mrs. Revels, “In an effort to learn the true facts I made three visits to the community in which the Scott school is located and in spite of this effort I am still unable to give you any official statement as to her ancestors.” Finlayson goes on to state that white citizens of the county believed them to have negro blood, but very little. Finlayson himself was unable to substantiate that claim, and further states,  “The mother and grandfather with whom I talked claim there was no negro blood  in their veins but there was Indian blood. This I was of course unable to substantiate by any official records since there seem to be no records.” In this letter Finlayson included two hand drawn family trees outlining the ancestry of Mary Francis Porter that were provided to him by Bessie Copeland and Mathias Porter. According to these notes Mary Francis was the great-granddaughter of Rebecca Goins Goodson who was ½ Indian and ½ white, and the great-granddaughter of Mary Attaway Scott who was also ½ Indian and ½ white.


1943- Catawba Nation reservation SC tribal roll taken in this year shows NO “Scott” surnames present among SC Catawba

1944- In this year another case came before the Jackson County School Board much like the one that had surfaced in 1903. In this case the School Board would come to a conclusion which had much less backbone. Two Johnson children had been barred from the Grand Ridge School because of questions as to their ancestry. Notes from the Board’s investigation reveal that the boys were children of Sweetie Blanchard of Scott’s Ferry. The Board interviewed Woodie Staley, a black man living at Scott Town, and several white citizens. The Board was trying to determine the eligibility of the boys to attend Grand Ridge School based on whether their relatives attended white or colored schools in other areas. The Board was at a total loss when it discovered that relatives of the Johnson boys attended school at Marysville/Scott’s Ferry, a colored school, and at Woods, considered a “white” school. Unable to come to any conclusion, Board member Bishop “advised them to quit Grand Ridge School due to ‘crowded conditions’ and attend in Calhoun County.”


1945- Mary Francis’ half-brother, Armond Copeland, also kindled a series of letters when he was employed at the U.S. Naval Ordinance Plant in Macon, Georgia. In March and April of 1945, inquiries were made as to Copeland’s ancestry and the Jackson County School Superintendent at the time, J.D. Milton, obviously referred directly to the Mary Francis letters as he replied, “Some of the forefathers claim there was no negro blood, but there was Indian blood. This, we are unable to substantiate by any official records.”


1948-In the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, Harlen Gilbert Jr. published a compilation entitled “Surviving Indian Groups of the Eastern United States” Some 100 mile to the east (of Pensacola) near Blountstown in Calhoun County there is said to be a colony of Melungean from Tennessee”

1954-Hugh Oxendine of Woods settlement dies in Chattahoochee, Gadsden County Florida

1956-A public Health Service worker does a site visit to the “Dominicker” settlement of Cheraw at Mt. Zion and writes a narrative about it.

1963- In Brewton Berry’s book “Almost White”, he identifies a mixed race group in Calhoun and Jackson counties of northwest Florida.

1996-Apalachicola River Indian Community Conference started in Blountstown, Florida to document the history of and advocate for the Scott Town and Scotts Ferry Indian communities and heritage

2010-December 14, Elman Scott, born in Scott Town passes away at 94 in Lakeland, FL